The combination of electroencephalography (EEG) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) forms a powerful tool for the investigation of brain function, but concurrent implementation of EEG and fMRI poses many technical challenges. Here, the motivation for combining EEG and fMRI is explored and methods underlying the combination are described. After a brief introduction to the two different techniques, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of data recording are detailed, followed by a description of the artefacts encountered when performing EEG and fMRI measurements simultaneously, and the methods which have been developed to eliminate these artefacts. Important safety considerations and potential pitfalls associated with simultaneous recording are also described. The ways in which EEG and fMRI data analysis can be integrated are then described along with examples of key work which illustrate the power of combined EEG/fMRI measurements. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of future directions for combined EEG/fMRI research.